Paper Title
Mean Arterial Pressure Control using New PI-PD Smith Predictor based on Fireworks Algorithm

Mean arterial pressure (MAP) is a simple parameter that can be non-invasively acquired to assess an individual’s cardiovascular health. The control of MAP, therefore, is of utmost importance in medical science. Although the hybrid of proportional-integral controller (PI), proportional-derivative controller (PD), and Smith predictor has been effectively used in controlling systems with long dead time, its application in MAP control has not been reported. By combining the hybrid fireworks algorithm and the reference model, the present study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of MAP control by comparing the proposed system with a published controller that used a hybrid algorithm between particle swarm optimization (PSO) and Boids (PSO-BOIDS) for Proportional-Integral-Derivative controller (PID) optimization. The simulation process was carried out using MATLAB/Simulink. The results showed that the proposed approach substantially shortened the response time and prevented MAP overshoot compared with the PID controller using PSO-BOIDS algorithm, highlighting enhanced effectiveness of the proposed system in MAP control.