Extraction of Open Surface Water Bodies in India using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques: A Review
Water is vital for the existence of life on Earth. Nature has always made sure that the cycle of water never ends.
Therefore, it becomes immensely necessary to maintain and manage our water resources. Over the recent past, population
explosion has led to rapid urbanization. The increasing demand for water is imposing huge pressure on the existing natural
resources. On the other hand, concrete jungles are interfering with the natural cycle of rejuvenating the water resources
leading to water-logging and droughts. Thus, there arises an urgent need to monitor and map the existing water bodies. This
can be achieved by using the techniques of remote sensing coupled with GIS. The present study provides a comprehensive
review of the various remote sensing techniques that are being used in India for mapping the spatial extent and changes in
water bodies. It is found that microwave remote sensing has not been explored much in this field for mapping Indian water
resources. Also, no study contained the exploitation of hyperspectral satellite images. Moreover, a very recent technique of
object-based classification too has not been used in this field by researchers in India. Thus, there arises a need to upgrade our
Keywords - Feature Extraction, Hyperspectral, Image Classification, Microwave Remote Sensing, Object-based
Classification, Spectral Indices.